Content

Preface
mmmm
A
Storm Clouds Gather
A1 Newtonian Foundation of Classical Physics
4
A2 Galilei's Principle of Relativity
8
A3 vv
Incompatibility of Maxwell's Theory of Electromagnetism
10
A4 Einstein cuts the Gordian Knot
14
A5 Suggestions 16

B
The Three Fundamental Consequences
B1 Primo: The Relativity of Simultaneousness
20
B2 Secundo: Fast Clocks Tick More Slowly
23
B3 Tertio: Moving Yardsticks Are Shorter
26
B4 Muons 1: An Experimental Confirmation
28
B5 Muons 2: A Second Look
29
B6 Quantitative Aspects of the Relativity of Simultaneousness
30
B7 Problems and Suggestions
32

C
Epstein's Simple Explanation
C1 Epstein's Myth 36
C2 Epstein Diagrams 37
C3 Time Dilatation in the Epstein Diagram 40
C4 Length Contraction in the Epstein Diagram
41
C5 Desynchronization in the Epstein Diagram 43
C6 Our Sample Problem in the Epstein Diagram 44
C7 Twin Paradox as seen by Epstein 46
C8 Summary 47
C9 Problems and Suggestions
48

D
Lorentz Transformations, Velocity Addition and Doppler Effect
D1 Coordinate Transformations before STR
52
D2 Derivation of the Lorentz Transformations from Epstein Diagrams 54
D3 Derivation of the Lorentz Transformations from Basic Phenomena
58
D4 Addition of Velocities in the STR 59
D5 Transverse Velocities and Aberration 60
D6
The Optical Doppler Effect
61
D7 Problems and Suggestions
64

E
Mass, Momentum and Energy
E1 The Symmetric Punch
68
E2 Epstein Diagrams for Mass and Momentum
70
E3 Mass and Energy - Observations in a Closed System
72
E4 Energy has Mass. How much Mass does 1 Joule have ?
74
E5 Epstein Diagrams for Energy and Momentum
78
E6 Problems and Suggestions 80

F Conservation Laws
F1 The Credo of Physics
84
F2 The Relativistic Corrections
86
F3 Examples of Mass-Energy Conservation
88
F4 Relativistic Collisions
92
F5 Creation and Annihilation of Particles
94
F6 How to Continue?
95
F7 Problems and Suggestions
96

G
From Special to General Theory of Relativity
G1 A Strange Experimental Fact
100
G2 The Equivalence Principle
102
G3 Our Restriction to a Special Case
104
G4 Clocks and Yardsticks in the Schwarzschild Field
108
G5 Different Speeds of Light !? 112
G6 Problems and Suggestions
114

H
Epstein Diagrams for the General Theory of Relativity
H1 Gravitation and the Curvature of Space-Time
118
H2 Twins Again, with Different Rates of Aging
120
H3 A Quantitative Consideration
121
H4 Principle of Maximum Proper Time
122
H5 Epstein Diagrams - Flat or Rolled
124
H6 Gravitation and the Curvature of Space 127
H7 Problems and Suggestions
130

I
Experiments in the General Theory of Relativity
I1 The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury 134
I2 The Deflection of Light in the Gravitational Field of the Sun 137
I3 The Shapiro Experiment 140
I4 The Experiment of Rebka and Pound 143
I5 Hafele and Keating Travel Around the World 144
I6 The Maryland Experiment 145
I7 GPS, LRS and Relativity 146
I8 The Einstein-Thirring-Lense Effect 148
I9 Gravitational Waves 150
I10 Problems and Suggestions 152

K
Some Additional Topics
K1 Early Experiments to Measure the Speed of Light
156
K2 Natural Units of Measurement in the STR and GTR
157
K3 General Formulas for Velocity Addition, the Doppler Effect and Aberration
158
K4 Force and Acceration in the STR
159
K5 The "Conquest of Space"
160
K6 Alternative Derivation of E = m·c^2 161
K7 Driving the Formula for Addition of Speeds from an Epstein Diagram
162
K8 The Transformation of Electromagnetic Quantities
164
K9 STR with Four-Vectors
165
K10
Measuring and Seeing in the STR
166
K11 STR and Minkowski Diagrams 168
K12 STR and Penrose Diagrams 169
K13 STR and Asano Diagrams 170

L Bibliography
L1 Bibliography in the Order of Occurence
174
L2 Bibliography in Alphabetical Order
178